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Generate CA + certificate

openssl genrsa -out rootCAKey.pem 2048
openssl req -x509 -sha256 -new -nodes -key rootCAKey.pem -days 7300 -out rootCACert.pem
openssl x509 -in rootCACert.pem -text
openssl x509 -outform der -in rootCACert.pem -out rootCACert.crt

-- generate server cert
openssl genrsa -out ServerKey.pem 2048
openssl req -new -sha256 -nodes \
  -key ServerKey.pem -out ServerRequest.csr -reqexts san -config \
  <(echo "[req]"; 
    echo distinguished_name=req; 
    echo "[san]"; 
    echo ",,IP:"
    ) \
  -subj "/"
printf "[san]\nsubjectAltName =,,IP:\n" >v3.ext
openssl x509 -req -sha256 -in ServerRequest.csr -CA rootCACert.pem -CAkey rootCAKey.pem -CAcreateserial -out ServerCert.pem -days 3650 -extfile v3.ext -extensions san
openssl pkcs12 -export -out cert.pfx -inkey ServerKey.pem -in ServerCert.pem -certfile rootCACert.pem

Show certificate request

openssl req -in ServerRequest.csr -noout -text

Check TLS

nmap --script ssl-enum-ciphers -p 443

Prefer PolyChacha in TLS 1.3

add in /etc/ssl/openssl.conf or /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config

openssl_conf = default_conf

ssl_conf = ssl_sect

system_default = system_default_sect

Ciphersuites = TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256:TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256:TLS_AES_128_CCM_SHA256:TLS_AES_128_CCM_8_SHA256:TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
Options = ServerPreference


PuTTY CAC is a fork of the PuTTY, a popular Secure Shell (SSH) terminal. PuTTY CAC adds the ability to use the Windows Certificate API (CAPI) or a Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) library to perform SSH public key authentication using a private key associated with a certificate that is stored on a hardware token.


SSH generate key

ssh-keygen -t ecdsa -b 384 -m PEM -C "Comment" -f ./key.pem
openssl req -key ./key.pem -new -nodes -x509 -days 365 -out key_certificate.pem
openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey key.pem -in key_certificate.pem -out key.p12

PuTTY Key Generator

Cert Identity Search

OpenSSL conf

CentOS location


PGP Keyserver

Hardware Acceleration

Check if AES-NI is enabled

grep -m1 -o aes /proc/cpuinfo

Check speed

openssl speed aes-128-cbc
openssl speed -evp aes-128-cbc
openssl speed -evp chacha20

Check OpenSSL throughput

dd if=/dev/zero count=100 bs=1M | ssh -c aes128-cbc localhost "cat >/dev/null"

Performance remarks

Decrypting a 1MB file on the Galaxy Nexus (OMAP 4460 chip)
AES-128-GCM 41.6ms
ChaCha20-Poly1305 13.2ms

AES128 vs AES256 1.38x faster
AES128 faster on desktop due to AES-NI HW Acceleration AES-NI is between 4-8x the performance of AES
ChaCha20-Poly1305 faster on mobile phones or slower HW

AWS Graviton2 performance

AES 128bit GCM 2482MB/s
AES 256bit GCM 2014MB/s
ChaCha20-Poly1305 731MB/s

GT-AX6000 Broadcom

AES 128bit GCM 783MB/s
AES 256bit GCM 673MB/s
ChaCha20-Poly1305 297MB/s

RaspberryPI 4 Broadcom

AES 128bit GCM 41MB/s
AES 256bit GCM 32MB/s
ChaCha20-Poly1305 353MB/s

OpenSSL Cipher list

# openssl ciphers | sed 's/\:/\n/gi'

OpenSSL Performance test

# openssl speed md5 sha1 sha256 sha512 des des-ede3 aes-128-cbc aes-192-cbc aes-256-cbc rsa2048 dsa2048

My preferred string for now

Functional with HTTP/2 protocol

ssl_session_timeout 4h;
ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:40M;
ssl_protocols TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains;";

Test StartTLS

openssl s_client -connect ip:21 -starttls ftp -showcerts
openssl s_client -connect ip:25 -starttls smtp -showcerts

Encrypt tar with password

Compress and encrypt

tar cvfz - * | openssl enc -e -aes128 -out secured.tar.gz

Decrypt and decompress

openssl enc -d -aes128 -in secured.tar.gz | tar xvz -C test

Install additional CA in CentOS / Redhat

place CA here -> /etc/pki/tls/certs/cert.pem
yum install /usr/bin/c_rehash

Self signed certificate + altname

set -e

if [ -z "$1" ]; then

[ req ]
prompt = no
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
x509_extensions = san_self_signed
[ req_distinguished_name ]
[ san_self_signed ]
subjectAltName = DNS:$hostname, DNS:localhost
subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid:always,issuer
basicConstraints = CA:true
keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment, dataEncipherment, keyCertSign, cRLSign
extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth, clientAuth, timeStamping

openssl req \
  -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes \
  -keyout "$hostname.key.pem" \
  -x509 -sha256 -days 3650 \
  -config <(echo "$local_openssl_config") \
  -out "$hostname.cert.pem"
openssl x509 -noout -text -in "$hostname.cert.pem"
cryptography.txt · Last modified: 2023/07/02 10:48 by Jan Forman